What are ghosts?

At their core, ghosts are just uninterpreted functions. These uninterpreted functions by themselves wouldn’t really be “ghosts” per se. However, along with axioms and hooks, these uninterpreted functions can be used to model some contract state that isn’t explicitly in the contract (hence it is a “ghost” state). In our canonical example, we use ghosts to keep track of the sum of balances in a bank contract.

A Simple Bank Example

Consider the following Bank contract:

contract Bank {
  mapping (address => uint256) balances;
  uint256 public totalSupply;
  function deposit(address a, uint256 amount) public {
    // also prevents overflow on account[a].balance, since that's <= totalSupply
    require(totalSupply + amount >= amount);
    balances[a] += amount;
    totalSupply += amount;
  function withdraw(address a, uint256 amount) public {
    require(balances[a] >= amount);
    balances[a] -= amount;
    totalSupply -= amount;
  function payday(address[] memory payees) public {
    for (uint i = 0; i < payees.length; i++) {
      deposit(payees[i], 1);

The state of the contract consists of totalSupply and balances where balances keeps track of the balance in each account and totalSupply keeps track of the sum of all balances. Now let’s suppose that we don’t trust that totalSupplygets updated correctly. We can introduce a ghost function to keep track of the sum and then compare that ghost function with totalSupply to see if they both got updated as expected. Here’s what that looks like:

// declare the ghost function
ghost ghostSupply() returns uint256;
// the hook that updates the ghost function as follows
// "At every write to the value at key 'a' in 'balances'
// increase ghostTotalSupply by the difference between
// tho old value and the new value"
//                              the new value ↓ written:
hook Sstore balances[KEY address a] uint256 balance
// the old value ↓ already there
    (uint256 old_balance) STORAGE {
  havoc ghostSupply assuming ghostSupply@new() == ghostSupply@old() +
      (balance - old_balance);

rule totalSupplyInvariant(method f) {
  require totalSupply() == ghostSupply();
  calldataarg arg;
  env e;
  sinvoke f(e, arg);
  assert totalSupply() == ghostSupply();

There are a few things going on here.

  1. We declared ghost ghostSupply() returns uint256. This creates an uninterpreted function called ghostSupplythat takes 0 arguments and returns a uint256. Notice that this is in a global scope. Each rule will get its own version of this uninterpreted function, but this way, it doesn’t have to be written several times.

  2. We declared a hook. This hook tells the tool to analyze the rule and find every Sstore (write) to an entry in balances. It binds the stored value to the name balance and the old value to the name old_balance.

  3. We defined a ghost update inside the body of the hook. We used a havoc assuming statement to mutate the ghost function. The havoc assuming statement — in this case havoc ghostSupply assuming binds ghostSupply@new(), the havoced version, and ghostSupply@old() the previous version. ghostSupply does not exist to the right of assuming. We then constrain the new version in terms of the old.

When all of these work in conjunction, the Prover successfully proves the rule totalSupplyInvariant.